TED英语演讲:如何与陌生人建立信任?(中英文对照)

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演讲者:Joe Gebbia

演说标题:如何与陌生人建立信任?

 

Airbnb的联合创始人Joe Gebbia先生本次来到TED讲台将和大家分享他的创业趣事以及他是如何消除"陌生人是危险的”的偏见,运用自己的专长帮助别人在最短的时间内与陌生人建立起信任,从而开启了其分享经济的创业之路。他认为分享经济的最终目的不是金钱,而是建立一种超越商业交易之外人与人的联系,这种联系必将会给我们的生活带来越来越多的美好与便利! 

 

I want to tell you the story about the timeI almost got kidnapped in the trunk of a red Mazda Miata. It's the day aftergraduating from design school and I'm having a yard sale. And this guy pulls upin this red Mazda and he starts looking through my stuff. And he buys a pieceof art that I made. And it turns out he's alone in town for the night, drivingcross-country on a road trip before he goes into the Peace Corps. So I invitehim out for a beer and he tells me all about his passion for making adifference in the world.

我想和你们分享一个故事,关于我差点被绑到一辆红色马自达后备箱的故事。那是从设计学校毕业之后第二天,我在后院里弄了个旧货拍卖。这个家伙开着红色马自达过来了,他停了车并开始打量我的东西。最后,他买了一件我的艺术作品。我得知他今晚在这个镇上是孤身一人,他正在进行加入美国和平队之前的穿越美国的汽车旅行。于是我请他出去喝了一杯,他跟我聊到关于他想要改变世界的所有宏图大略。

 

Now it's starting to get late, and I'mgetting pretty tired. As I motion for the tab, I make the mistake of askinghim, "So where are you staying tonight?" And he makes it worse bysaying, "Actually, I don't have a place." And I'm thinking, "Oh,man!" What do you do? We've all been there, right? Do I offer to host thisguy? But, I just met him -- I mean, he says he's going to the Peace Corps, butI don't really know if he's going to the Peace Corps and I don't want to end upkidnapped in the trunk of a Miata. That's a small trunk!

时间有点晚了,我也挺累的了。当我示意服务员结账时,我犯了个错误,就是问了他,“那你今晚住哪儿?”他说了一句话,情况就变得更糟了,“实际上,我没地方住。”这时候我心想,“哦,天呐!”这可怎么办?我们都遇到过这种情况,对吧?我应该让他住我这里吗?我才刚认识他啊——我是说,他说他是要去美国和平队,但我哪知道他到底是不是真的要去啊?我才不想被绑在那个马自达的后备箱里就这么玩儿完了。这后备箱也太小了!

 

So then I hear myself saying, "Hey, Ihave an airbed you can stay on in my living room." And the voice in myhead goes, "Wait, what?"

之后我听到自己说,“嗨,我还有个气垫床,你可以睡在我客厅里。”而我自己脑海中的声音是,“等等,你在干嘛啊?”

 

That night, I'm laying in bed, I'm staringat the ceiling and thinking, "Oh my god, what have I done? There's acomplete stranger sleeping in my living room. What if he's psychotic?" Myanxiety grows so much, I leap out of bed, I sneak on my tiptoes to the door,and I lock the bedroom door.

那一晚,我躺在床上,盯着天花板开始想,“我的天,我到底做了什么?”怎么会让一个完全陌生的人睡在我客厅里?他要是有精神病该怎么办?"我越来越不安,于是从床上坐了起来,踮起脚尖偷偷溜到门前,锁上了卧室的门。

 

It turns out he was not psychotic. We'vekept in touch ever since. And the piece of art he bought at the yard sale ishanging in his classroom; he's a teacher now.

当然,最后证明,他没有精神病。那以后我们还常常保持联系。他把从我这里买的那个艺术品,一直挂在他的教室里;他现在是个老师。

 

This was my first hosting experience, andit completely changed my perspective. Maybe the people that my childhood taughtme to label as strangers were actually friends waiting to be discovered. Theidea of hosting people on airbeds gradually became natural to me and when Imoved to San Francisco, I brought the airbed with me.

这就是我第一次留人住宿的经历,并且这件事彻底改变了我的看法。也许,在我童年时期被定义为陌生人的那些人,其实是等待被发现的朋友。用气垫床留宿别人的想法渐渐变得很自然,当我搬去旧金山的时候,我带上了我的气垫床。

 

So now it's two years later. I'munemployed, I'm almost broke, my roommate moves out, and then the rent goes up.And then I learn there's a design conference coming to town, and all the hotelsare sold out. And I've always believed that turning fear into fun is the giftof creativity.

两年之后,我失业了,几乎身无分文,我的室友搬走了,要支付的租金也变多了。之后我听说,镇上要开一个设计研讨会,但是所有的宾馆都被订满了。我一直坚信,把恐惧变成乐趣是创造力给予我们的礼物。

 

So here's what I pitch my best friend andmy new roommate Brian Chesky: "Brian, thought of a way to make a few bucks-- turning our place into 'designers bed and breakfast,' offering youngdesigners who come to town a place to crash, complete with wireless Internet, asmall desk space, sleeping mat, and breakfast each morning. Ha!"

所以我马上开始拉拢我最好的朋友,也是我的新室友BrianChesky:“Brian,我想到了个挣零花钱的法子——把我们的住所改造成"设计者之家"这么个地方,为匆忙来镇上开会的年轻设计师提供一个有无线网、小桌子、睡垫和每日早餐的地方。不错吧!”

 

We built a basic website and Airbed andBreakfast was born. Three lucky guests got to stay on a 20-dollar airbed on thehardwood floor. But they loved it, and so did we. I swear, the ham and Swisscheese omelets we made tasted totally different because we made them for ourguests. We took them on adventures around the city, and when we said goodbye tothe last guest, the door latch clicked, Brian and I just stared at each other.Did we just discover it was possible to make friends while also making rent?

我们建了一个很简易的网页,“气垫床与早餐”就这样诞生了。三个幸运的客人得以靠硬木地板上的廉价气垫床过夜。不过他们很满意,我们也是。我发誓,我们为客人准备的瑞士奶酪蛋卷味道绝对与众不同,因为是专门为客人准备的。我们还带他们在城里兜风,当我们向最后一个客人道别、锁好门之后,Brian和我对视了一下,彼此心照不宣。我们是不是发现了一个既能交朋友,又能收租金的好生意?

 

The wheels had started to turn. My oldroommate, Nate Blecharczyk, joined as engineering co-founder. And we buckleddown to see if we could turn this into a business.

命运的轮子开始转动了。我的旧室友,NateBlecharcyzk加入了我们,成为了工程方面的共同创始人。之后我们开始努力工作,看看是否能以此成就大业。

 

Here's what we pitched investors: "Wewant to build a website where people publicly post pictures of their mostintimate spaces, their bedrooms, the bathrooms -- the kinds of rooms youusually keep closed when people come over. And then, over the Internet, they'regoing to invite complete strangers to come sleep in their homes. It's going tobe huge!"

这是我们向投资者传达的讯息:“我们想建立一个这样的网站,让人们可以把他们最私密空间的照片,比如卧室和卫生间——这种别人来访时不方便进入的空间——发布到网站上。然后,通过网络,他们还可以邀请陌生人在家里暂住。这会是个巨大的市场!“

 

We sat back, and we waited for the rocketship to blast off. It did not. No one in their right minds would invest in aservice that allows strangers to sleep in people's homes. Why? Because we'veall been taught as kids, strangers equal danger.

于是我们开始像等火箭升空一样,坐等我们的事业蓬勃发展。但是,天不遂人愿。没有人认为让陌生人住在自己家里是个靠谱的主意,我们也没有获得任何投资。为什么?因为我们从小就被教导,陌生人=危险。

 

Now, when you're faced with a problem, you fall back on what you know, and all we really knew was design. In art school,you learn that design is much more than the look and feel of something -- it'sthe whole experience. We learned to do that for objects, but here, we wereaiming to build Olympic trust between people who had never met. Could designmake that happen? Is it possible to design for trust?

当你遇到问题时,往往会回想你所了解的东西,而我们所了解的,就只有设计。在艺术学校里,你会学到,设计不仅仅关乎外表和感觉——而是整体的体验。我们在学校学的是物品设计,但是在这里,我们的目标是要让素未谋面的人们彼此产生奥林匹克式的信任。设计能做到这一点吗?设计可能会带来“信任”吗?

 

I want to give you a sense of the flavor oftrust that we were aiming to achieve. I've got a 30-second experiment that willpush you past your comfort zone. If you're up for it, give me a thumbs-up. OK,I need you to take out your phones. Now that you have your phone out, I'd likeyou to unlock your phone. Now hand your unlocked phone to the person on yourleft.

我想带你们体验一下我们所要实现的“信任”的感觉。我会进行一个三十秒的实验,会把你们推出孰悉的舒适区。如果你准备好了,请竖起你的大拇指!好,我需要各位拿出你们的手机。手机都拿出来了吧,现在请把手机解锁,现在请把你解锁后的手机递给你左手边的人。

 

That tiny sense of panic you're feelingright now --is exactly how hosts feel the first timethey open their home. Because the only thing more personal than your phone isyour home. People don't just see your messages, they see your bedroom, yourkitchen, your toilet.

现在你们正感觉到的小小的不安——就是那些提供住宿的人第一次敞开家门的感觉。因为能比你的手机更私密的就是你家了。人们不仅会看到你的短信,还会看到你的卧室,你的厨房,你的卫生间。

 

Now, how does it feel holding someone'sunlocked phone? Most of us feel really responsible. That's how most guests feelwhen they stay in a home. And it's because of this that our company can evenexist. By the way, who's holding Al Gore's phone?

现在,拿着别人解锁的手机感觉如何?我们大多数人都会本能地生出一丝责任感。这就是大部分房客在住宿时的感觉。这也是为什么我们的公司到现在仍然存在的原因。顺便问一句,你们谁拿到了AlGore(前美国副总统)的手机?

 

Would you tell Twitter he's running forPresident?

你能在推特上发一下,他准备要参选总统了吗?

 

OK, you can hand your phones back now.

好了,现在你们可以换回手机了。

 

So now that you've experienced the kind oftrust challenge we were facing, I'd love to share a few discoveries we've madealong the way. What if we changed one small thing about the design of thatexperiment? What if your neighbor had introduced themselves first, with theirname, where they're from, the name of their kids or their dog? Imagine thatthey had 150 reviews of people saying, "They're great at holding unlockedphones!"

那么各位已经体验了我们曾经面对过的信任方面的挑战,我十分愿意通过这种方式来分享我们的发现。如果我们对这次实验的设计进行一个小改动呢?如果这次实验是你的邻居首先介绍他们自己,他们的名字,从哪儿来,他们的孩子,或者小狗的名字呢?想象一下,随后有150个人评价了他们,“他们很擅长拿着解锁的手机!”

 

Now how would you feel about handing yourphone over?

现在你们觉得把手机交出去感觉怎么样?

 

It turns out, a well-designed reputationsystem is key for building trust. And we didn't actually get it right the firsttime. It's hard for people to leave bad reviews. Eventually, we learned to waituntil both guests and hosts left the review before we reveal them.

事实证明,一个精心设计的信誉体系是建立信任的关键。我们也并不是初次就成功了。要让人们留下负面的评论其实挺难的。最终,我们学到了在展示所有的信息之前,需要先等待房东与房客都留下评论。

 

Now, here's a discovery we made just lastweek. We did a joint study with Stanford, where we looked at people'swillingness to trust someone based on how similar they are in age, location andgeography. The research showed, not surprisingly, we prefer people who are likeus. The more different somebody is, the less we trust them. Now, that's anatural social bias. But what's interesting is what happens when you addreputation into the mix, in this case, with reviews.

我们上周才发现一件事。我们与斯坦福大学合作进行合作,以年龄、居住地和地理环境相似度为基础,调查了人们对其他人的信任程度。研究得出了一个意料之中的结果,我们更喜欢与我们相似的人。与我们差异越大的人,我们越是不信任他们。这是一种与生俱来的社会偏见。不过有趣的是,当你把信誉放在一起考虑的时候会发生什么,在这里也就是评价。

 

Now, if you've got less than three reviews,nothing changes. But if you've got more than 10, everything changes. Highreputation beats high similarity. The right design can actually help usovercome one of our most deeply rooted biases.

如果你得到的评价少于三条,什么都不会改变。但是如果你得到超过10条评价,所有事情就会发生变化。这时候,高的信誉评价就会比高相似度更可信。正确的设计可以帮助我们克服扎根心底的认知偏差。

 

Now we also learned that building the rightamount of trust takes the right amount of disclosure. This is what happens whena guest first messages a host. If you share too little, like, "Yo,"acceptance rates go down. And if you share too much, like, "I'm havingissues with my mother,"acceptance rates also go down. But there'sa zone that's just right, like, "Love the artwork in your place. Comingfor vacation with my family." So how do we design for just the rightamount of disclosure? We use the size of the box to suggest the right length,and we guide them with prompts to encourage sharing.

我们也发现要想得到多少信任,就得公开多少我们自己的信息。接下来就是房客第一次发信息给房东时的情况。如果你自我介绍得太少,比如,“呦,”那么你的接受率就会下降。如果你说太多,比如,“我跟我妈闹翻了,”接受率也会走低。不过也是有适当的表达,比如,“喜欢你房间的艺术品,打算和家人一起去度假。”那么,要如何确定怎样才是适当的表达呢?我们通过消息盒子的大小来建议房客合适的字数,而且我们还适度地引导并鼓励他们分享。

 

We bet our whole company on the hope that,with the right design, people would be willing to overcome the stranger-dangerbias. What we didn't realize is just how many people were ready and waiting toput the bias aside.

我们通过好的设计,把整个公司都押在这样一个希望上,人们愿意克服畏惧陌生人的偏见。但是我们并没有意识到到底有多少人已经准备好去克服这种偏见了。

 

This is a graph that shows our rate ofadoption. There's three things happening here. The first, an unbelievableamount of luck. The second is the efforts of our team. And third is theexistence of a previously unsatisfied need. Now, things have been going prettywell.

这是我们订单接受率的图表。这张图表说明了三件事。第一,运气好得难以置信。第二,这是我们团队努力的成果。第三,我们之前所做的还并不完全令人满意。现在,事情正在越变越好。

 

Obviously, there are times when thingsdon't work out. Guests have thrown unauthorized parties and trashed homes.Hosts have left guests stranded in the rain. In the early days, I was customerservice, and those calls came right to my cell phone. I was at the front linesof trust breaking. And there's nothing worse than those calls, it hurts to eventhink about them. And the disappointment in the sound of someone's voice wasand, I would say, still is our single greatest motivator to keep improving.

但不可否认,我们也出过一些问题。比如客人不经主人同意举办派对,并且把家里弄得一团糟。还有,房客滞留在雨中无法入住,房东却坐视不管。在事业早期,我也承担过客服工作,这些电话一个接一个打到我的手机。我处在信任破裂的最前线。实在是没什么要比这些电话更糟了,任何时候想起来都会觉得心痛。电话那头的声音透露出的失望,说实话,始终都是我们不停改进的最大动力。

 

Thankfully, out of the 123 million nightswe've ever hosted, less than a fraction of a percent have been problematic.Turns out, people are justified in their trust. And when trust works out right,it can be absolutely magical.

感谢上帝,在我们为1.23亿个客户安排了住宿之后,解决不了的问题越来越少了。这也说明人们调整了他们关于信任的态度。而信任一旦上了正确的轨道,不可思议的事情就会发生。

 

We had a guest stay with a host in Uruguay,and he suffered a heart attack. The host rushed him to the hospital. Theydonated their own blood for his operation. Let me read you his review.

我们曾经有一个房客在乌拉圭住宿的时候,遭遇了突发的心脏病。房东把他送到医院急救,还为他的手术献了血。让我向各位读一读他的评价:

 

"Excellent house for sedentarytravelers prone to myocardial infarctions.

“这是一间对需要久坐,容易心肌梗塞的旅行者来说极好的房子。

 

The area is beautiful and has direct accessto the best hospitals.

这个区域环境优美,而且有一条直通顶级医院的道路。

 

Javier and Alejandra instantly becomeguardian angels who will save your life without even knowing you. They willrush you to the hospital in their own car while you're dying and stay in thewaiting room while the doctors give you a bypass. They don't want you to feellonely, they bring you books to read. And they let you stay at their houseextra nights without charging you. Highly recommended!"

Javier和Alejandra是那种就算不认识你也会立刻救你命的守护天使。当你快要不行了的时候,他们会急忙开车带你去医院急救,在你做搭桥手术的时候他们也会在等候室等着你。他们不想让你感到孤独,还会带书来给你读。并且之后他们还会多留你几晚并且不收一分钱。强力推荐!”

 

Of course, not every stay is like that. Butthis connection beyond the transaction is exactly what the sharing economy isaiming for.

当然,并不是所有人住宿时都会发生这样的事情。但是,这种超越交易的联系就是“分享经济”要达到的目标。

 

Now, when I heard that term, I have toadmit, it tripped me up. How do sharing and transactions go together? So let'sbe clear; it is about commerce. But if you just called it the rental economy,it would be incomplete. The sharing economy is commerce with the promise ofhuman connection. People share a part of themselves, and that changeseverything.

当我听到这个词的时候,我得承认,我的思路真的有点跟不上。如何把分享和交易绑到一起?所以让我们来理清这件事;这与商业有关。不过,如果你只是把这叫做“房租经济”,还不算是很完整的定义。“分享经济”是人们交流承诺的商业行为。人们把自己的一部分分享出来,之后一切就改变了。

 

You know how most travel today is, like, Ithink of it like fast food -- it's efficient and consistent, at the cost oflocal and authentic. What if travel were like a magnificent buffet of localexperiences? What if anywhere you visited, there was a central marketplace oflocals offering to get you thoroughly drunk on a pub crawl in neighborhoods youdidn't even know existed. Or learning to cook from the chef of a five-starrestaurant?

大家知道,现在的旅行就像,我想就像快餐——高效而且大同小异,但却牺牲了当地的风土人情。如果旅行更像是当地风味的豪华自助餐呢?如果你在每个游览的地方都能在当地中心集市里一个你完全不认识社区酒吧喝到酩酊大醉。或者是从一个五星级酒店的大厨那里学做菜?

 

Today, homes are designed around the ideaof privacy and separation. What if homes were designed to be shared from theground up? What would that look like? What if cities embraced a culture ofsharing? I see a future of shared cities that bring us community and connectioninstead of isolation and separation.

现如今,房子的设计理念都以私隐和分隔为主。要是房子的设计从一开始就融入了分享的概念会怎么样呢?看起来会如何呢?如果城市拥抱了分享的文化呢?我可以预见到,未来这些分享的城市会为我们带来更多的共同点和联系,而不是孤独与分离。

 

In South Korea, in the city of Seoul,they've actually even started this. They've repurposed hundreds of governmentparking spots to be shared by residents. They're connecting students who need aplace to live with empty-nesters who have extra rooms. And they've started anincubator to help fund the next generation of sharing economy start-ups.

在韩国,首尔这个城市,人们已经着手开始行动了。他们把数以百计的政府停车位改造之后分享给市民们使用。他们将需要住宿的学生与有空房间的房东联系起来。他们还设立了孵化器,为下一代“分享经济”的初创公司提供资金支持。

 

Tonight, just on our service, 785,000people in 191 countries will either stay in a stranger's home or welcome oneinto theirs. Clearly, it's not as crazy as we were taught.

今晚,仅仅通过我们的服务平台,就有来自191个国家,78.5万的人,要么会留宿在陌生人家里,要么是在准备欢迎陌生人来家里住。很明显,事实并没有我们小时候被教育得那么夸张。

 

We didn't invent anything new. Hospitalityhas been around forever. There's been many other websites like ours. So, whydid ours eventually take off? Luck and timing aside, I've learned that you cantake the components of trust, and you can design for that. Design can overcomeour most deeply rooted stranger-danger bias. And that's amazing to me. It blowsmy mind. I think about this every time I see a red Miata go by.

我们其实并没有发明什么新的东西。热情好客也是传统美德。甚至也有很多和我们差不多的网站。但是为什么我们最后会越做越大?抛开运气与时机的原因,我想我们在这里学到的很重要的一点就是信任,并且通过设计来实现它。设计可以帮我们克服根植于内心的陌生等于危险的偏见。这一点让我很受鼓舞。也让我觉得耳目一新。每次看到红色马自达驶过,我都会想到这些。

 

Now, we know design won't solve all theworld's problems. But if it can help out with this one, if it can make a dentin this, it makes me wonder, what else can we design for next?

现在,我们知道设计不能解决世界上所有的难题。但是如果能帮助我们解决这件事,能让这件事取得初步的进展,这不禁让我想到,接下来我们还能设计些什么呢?

 

Thank you.(Applause)

谢谢!(掌声)

 


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