TED英语演讲:运动为大脑带来的益处(中英文对照)

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演讲者:Wendy Suzuki 温迪铃木

演说标题:运动为大脑带来的益处

今天你能为大脑做出什么样的变革?行使!神经科学家Wendy Suzuki说。 获得灵感去健身房,因为铃木讨论如何锻炼提高你的心情和记忆的科学 - 并保护你的大脑免受神经退行性疾病,如阿尔茨海默氏症。

 

What if I told you there was something thatyou can do right now that would have an immediate, positive benefit for yourbrain including your mood and your focus? And what if I told you that samething could actually last a long time and protect your brain from differentconditions like depression, Alzheimer's disease or dementia. Would you do it?Yes!

如果我告诉各位,有件你们现在就可以做的事,对你的大脑会立即产生正面的好处,包括你的心情和专注都会受惠,你会如何呢?如果我告诉各位,这事能持续很久的时间,并保护你的大脑免于不同的病症,比如忧郁、阿兹海默症,或失智症的侵扰,你会如何?你们愿意做这件事吗?愿意!

 

I am talking about the powerful effects ofphysical activity. Simply moving your body, has immediate, long-lasting andprotective benefits for your brain. And that can last for the rest of yourlife. So what I want to do today is tell you a story about how I used my deepunderstanding of neuroscience, as a professor of neuroscience, to essentiallydo an experiment on myself in which I discovered the science underlying whyexercise is the most transformative thing that you can do for your brain today.

我谈的是活动身体的强大效应。只要很单纯地去动你的身体,就能对你的大脑产生立即、持久,且有保护作用的益处,且持续一生。所以,今天我要跟各位说个故事,这故事有关身为神经科学教授的我,如何用我对于神经科学的深入了解,在我自己身上实验,从实验中找到科学理由来说明,为什么在现今你能做的所有事情当中,运动最能改变你的大脑。

 

Now, as a neuroscientist, I know that our brains, that is the thing in our headright now, that is the most complex structure known to humankind. But it's onething to talk about the brain, and it's another to see it.

身为神经科学家,我知道我们的大脑,也就是在我们头里面的那个东西,是人类所知最复杂的结构。但,谈论大脑是一回事,看大脑又是另一回事了。

 

So here is a real preserved human brain.And it's going to illustrate two key areas that we are going to talk abouttoday. The first is the prefrontal cortex, right behind your forehead, criticalfor things like decision-making, focus, attention and your personality. Thesecond key area is located in the temporal lobe, shown right here. You have two temporal lobes in your brain, the right and the left, and deep in the temporallobe is a key structure critical for your ability to form and retain newlong-term memories for facts and events. 

这是一个真正保存起来的人类大脑。它将会说明我们今天要谈到的两个关键区域。第一个是「前额叶皮质」,就在你的额头后面,对决策、专注、注意力,以及你的人格来说很重要。第二个关键区域位在「颞叶」,就在图上的这里。你的大脑中有两个颞叶,一右一左,颞叶的深处是个关键的结构,重要功能是让你能够针对事实和事件来形成并维持新的长期记忆。

 

And that structure is called thehippocampus. So I've always been fascinated with the hippocampus. How could itbe that an event that lasts just a moment, say, your first kiss, or the momentyour first child was born, can form a memory that has changed your brain, thatlasts an entire lifetime? That's what I want to understand. I wanted to startand record the activity of individual brain cells in the hippocampus assubjects were forming new memories. And essentially try and decode how thosebrief bursts of electrical activity, which is how neurons communicate with eachother, how those brief bursts either allowed us to form a new memory, or didnot.

那个结构就叫做「海马体」。我一直很迷海马体。怎么有可能,一个短暂的事件,比如,你的初吻,或是你的第一个孩子出生的那一刻,能够形成一个记忆,这记忆能改变你的大脑,且一生都不会忘记?那是我想要了解的。我想要记下受试者在形成记忆时,海马回中的每个脑细胞的活动。并真的试图破解那些短暂的突升电流活动,也就是神经元彼此沟通的方式,那些短暂的突升怎么让我们形成新记忆,或没形成记忆?

 

But a few years ago, I did something veryunusual in science. As a full professor of neural science, I decided tocompletely switch my research program. Because I encountered something that wasso amazing, with the potential to change so many lives that I had to study it.I discovered and I experienced the brain-changing effects of exercise. 

但几年前,我做了一件在科学中被认为很不寻常的事。身为神经科学的正教授,我决定完全转换我的研究计划。因为我遇到了非常惊人的事,它有潜能可以改变许多人的生命,我得要去研究它。我发现且体验到运动有改变大脑的效应。

 

And I did it in a completely inadvertent way. I was actually at the height of all thememory work that I was doing -- data was pouring in, I was becoming known in myfield for all of this memory work. And it should have been going great. It was,scientifically. But when I stuck my head out of my lab door, I noticedsomething. I had no social life. I spent too much time listening to those braincells in a dark room, by myself. 

我完全是在无意间发现的。其实当时我正处于所进行的记忆研究工作的顶峰,资料不断地涌入,在我的领域中,我开始因为这项记忆研究而变得出名。本来应该很顺利。在科学上的确很顺利。但当我从实验室门探出头,我注意到了某件事。我没有社交生活。我花了太多时间,独自在黑暗的房间中倾听那些脑细胞。

 

I didn't move my body at all. I hadgained 25 pounds. And actually, it took me many years to realize it, I wasactually miserable. And I shouldn't be miserable. And I went on a river-raftingtrip -- by myself, because I had no social life. And I came back --thinking, "Oh, my God, I was theweakest person on that trip." And I came back with a mission. I said,"I'm never going to feel like the weakest person on a river-rafting tripagain." And that's what made me go to the gym. 

我完全没动我的身体。我的体重增加了二十五磅。而且,我花了很多年,才了解到我其实很悲惨。而我不应该如此悲惨。我参加一趟泛舟之旅──自己一个人,因为我没有社交生活。接着我回来了。心想:「我的天,我是那趟旅行中最弱的人。」回来后我就有了一个使命。我说:「我再也不要觉得自己是泛舟之旅中最弱的人了。」这就是我上健身房的动力来源。

 

And I focused my type-Apersonality on going to all the exercise classes at the gym. I triedeverything. I went to kickbox, dance, yoga, step class, and at first it wasreally hard. But what I noticed is that after every sweat-inducing workout thatI tried, I had this great mood boost and this great energy boost. And that'swhat kept me going back to the gym. Well, I started feeling stronger. I startedfeeling better, I even lost that 25 pounds.

我把我的A型人格专注在去参加健身房中所有的运动课程。我什么都尝试了,我去试了自由搏击、跳舞、瑜伽、阶梯课程,一开始真的很辛苦。但我注意到,在我每回尝试会让我满身大汗的运动之后,我的情绪和能量都会大大提升。这就是为什么我会一直持续回到健身房。我开始感觉比较强壮了。我开始感觉更好了,我甚至把那二十五磅给减掉了。

 

And now, fast-forward a year and a halfinto this regular exercise program and I noticed something that really made mesit up and take notice. I was sitting at my desk, writing a research grant, anda thought went through my mind that had never gone through my mind before. Andthat thought was, "Gee, grant-writing is going well today." 

现在,从我开始做日常锻炼至今已有一年半多了,我注意到一件事,它让我吃惊并吸引了我的注意。我坐在桌前写研究补助申请书,脑中浮现一个想法,那是我以前从来没有想过的。那个想法就是:「天,今天的研究补助申请写得真顺利。」

 

And all the scientists --yeah, all the scientists always laugh whenI say that, because grant-writing never goes well. It is so hard; you're alwayspulling your hair out, trying to come up with that million-dollar-winning idea.But I realized that the grant-writing was going well, because I was able tofocus and maintain my attention for longer than I had before. And my long-termmemory -- what I was studying in my own lab -- seemed to be better in me. Andthat's when I put it together.

所有的科学家──是啊,当我那么说时,科学家都会笑出来,因为写补助申请从来就不会顺利。它真的很难搞,你总是要想破头,试图提个能赢得百万美元的想法。但我发现,补助申请能写得很顺利,是因为我专注和维持注意力的时间,都比以前更长。且我的长期记忆──我的实验室的研究主题──似乎在我身上也变得更好。就在那时,我把一切都连起来了。

 

Maybe all that exercise that I had includedand added to my life was changing my brain. Maybe I did an experiment on myselfwithout even knowing it. So as a curious neuroscientist, I went to theliterature to see what I could find about what we knew about the effects ofexercise on the brain. And what I found was an exciting and a growingliterature that was essentially showing everything that I noticed in myself.

也许,我加在生活中的那些运动在改变我的大脑。也许我在自己身上做了实验而不自知。身为好奇的神经科学家,我去查研究文献,看看有没有什么已知信息与运动对大脑的效应有关。我发现的文献很让人兴奋,且还在不断增加中,基本上,文献完全点出了我在身上注意到的所有改变。

 

Better mood, better energy, better memory, better attention. And the more Ilearned, the more I realized how powerful exercise was. Which eventually led meto the big decision to completely shift my research focus. And so now, afterseveral years of really focusing on this question, I've come to the followingconclusion: that exercise is the most transformative thing that you can do foryour brain today for the following three reasons.

更好的心情、更高的能量、更好的记忆、更佳的注意力。我学得越多,我就越能了解运动有多强大。最终,这导致了我做出重大决定,完全转变我的研究重心。所以,在真正投入这个问题几年后,我得到了下列的结论:在现今你能做的所有事情当中,运动最能改变你的大脑,理由是以下三个。

 

Number one: it has immediate effects onyour brain. A single workout that you do will immediately increase levels ofneurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline. That is going toincrease your mood right after that workout, exactly what I was feeling. My labshowed, that a single workout can improve your ability to shift and focusattention, and that focus improvement will last for at least two hours. Andfinally, studies have shown that a single workout will improve your reactiontimes which basically means that you are going to be faster at catching thatcup of Starbucks that falls off the counter, which is very, very important.

第一:运动对你的大脑有立即的效应。你做的每一次运动,都会立即增加神经传递质的量,如多巴胺、血清素、正肾上腺素。这会在你运动之后马上提升你的心情,那正是我的感受。我的实验室显示,单一次运动就能改善你转移和聚焦的能力,而那专注的改善会持续至少两个小时。最后,研究显示,单一次运动就会改善你的反应时间,基本上,那就表示如果一杯星巴克咖啡从柜台滑落,你能更快速接住它,这点是非常非常重要的。

 

But these immediate effects are transient,they help you right after. What you have to do is do what I did, that is changeyour exercise regime, increase your cardiorespiratory function, to get thelong-lasting effects. And these effects are long-lasting because exerciseactually changes the brain's anatomy, physiology and function. Let's start withmy favorite brain area, the hippocampus. The hippocampus -- or exerciseactually produces brand new brain cells, new brain cells in the hippocampus,that actually increase its volume, as well as improve your long-term memory,OK? And that including in you and me.

但这些立即的效应很短暂,在运动刚结束时帮助你。你们得要做我所做的,也就是改变你的运动规律,增加你的心肺功能,才能得到持久的效应。这些效应之所以能持久,是因为运动确实能改变大脑的结构、生理机能,以及功能。我们从我最爱的大脑区域海马体开始。海马体──运动确实能制造出全新的脑细胞,海马体中新的脑细胞能增加容积,还能改善你的长期记忆。对你我皆是如此。

 

Number two: the most common finding inneuroscience studies, looking at effects of long-term exercise, is improvedattention function dependent or your prefrontal cortex. You not only get betterfocus and attention, but the volume of the hippocampus increases as well. Andfinally, you not only get immediate effects of mood with exercise but thoselast for a long time. So you get long-lasting increases in those good mood neurotransmitters.

第二:在神经科学研究中最常见的研究发现,在长期运动的效应这方面,就是改善注意力功能,而这功能取决于你的前额叶皮质。你不但会有更佳的专注和注意力,海马体的容量也会增加。最后,你做运动会得到的不只是心情上的立即效应,还会有长期的效应。所以,你的好心情神经传递质就能得持续增加。

 

But really, the most transformative thingthat exercise will do is its protective effects on your brain. Here you canthink about the brain like a muscle. The more you're working out, the biggerand stronger your hippocampus and prefrontal cortex gets. Why is thatimportant? Because the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus are the two areasthat are most susceptible to neurodegenerative diseases and normal cognitivedecline in aging. 

但其实,运动能带来最大的转变,就是对大脑产生保护效应。可以把大脑想成是肌肉。你运动得越多,你的海马体和前额叶皮质就会更大、更强壮。为什么那很重要?因为前额叶皮质和海马体这两个区域最容易因神经退化性疾病和老化而使得正常认知退化。

 

So with increased exercise over your lifetime, you're notgoing to cure dementia or Alzheimer's disease, but what you're going to do isyou're going to create the strongest, biggest hippocampus and prefrontal cortexso it takes longer for these diseases to actually have an effect. You can thinkof exercise, therefore, as a supercharged 401K for your brain, OK? And it'seven better, because it's free.

在你的一生中增加运动并不能治愈失智症或阿兹海默症,但能创造出最强壮、最大的海马体和前额叶皮质,所以这些疾病要更长的时间才会对你产生实际的影响。因此,你可以把运动想成是大脑的加强版401K退休福利计划。它还更好,因为它是免费的。

 

So this is the point in the talk whereeverybody says, "That sounds so interesting, Wendy, but I really will onlywant to know one thing. And that is, just tell me the minimum amount ofexercise I need to get all these changes."

演说到这个时点,大家通常会说:「温迪,那听起来好有趣,但我其实只想知道一件事,那就是只要告诉我最少要做多少运动才能得到所有这些改变。」

 

And so I'm going to tell you the answer tothat question. First, good news: you don't have to become a triathlete to getthese effects. The rule of thumb is you want to get three to four times a weekexercise minimum 30 minutes an exercise session, and you want to get aerobicexercise in. That is, get your heart rate up. And the good news is, you don'thave to go to the gym to get a very expensive gym membership. Add an extra walkaround the block in your power walk. You see stairs -- take stairs. And power-vacuumingcan be as good as the aerobics class that you were going to take at the gym.

所以,我会告诉各位这个问题的答案。首先,好消息:你不用变成铁人三项运动员也可以得到这些效应。经验法则是,每周要运动三到四次,每次运动至少要有三十分钟,且你需要做一些有氧运动。也就是要让你的心跳升高。好消息是你不需要去健身房付很贵的健身房会费。在你健走的时候,再额外多走一个街区。如果你看见有楼梯可走,走楼梯。power-vacuuming是很好的有氧课程选择,如果你到健身房运动的话。

 

So I've gone from memory pioneer toexercise explorer. From going into the innermost workings of the brain, totrying to understand how exercise can improve our brain function, and my goalin my lab right now is to go beyond that rule of thumb that I just gave you --three to four times a week, 30 minutes. I want to understand the optimumexercise prescription for you, at your age, at your fitness level, for yourgenetic background, to maximize the effects of exercise today and also toimprove your brain and protect your brain the best for the rest of your life.

所以,我从记忆的先驱拓荒者,变成了运动探索者。从进入大脑最深处的运作活动,变成试图了解运动如何能改善大脑功能,现在,我的实验室的目标是要超越我刚刚跟各位说的经验法则──每周三到四次,每次三十分钟。我想要了解最理想的运动处方是什么,针对你,根据你的年龄、你的健康程度、你的基因背景,来把今天的运动效应给最大化,同时把改善及保护你的大脑做到最好,让你一生都能受益。

 

But it's one thing to talk about exercise,and it's another to do it. So I'm going to invoke my power as a certifiedexercise instructor, to ask you all to stand up.

但,「谈」运动是一回事,「做」运动是另一回事。所以,我要实行我身为认证运动指导员的权力,请各位都站起来。

 

We're going to do just one minute ofexercise. It's call-and-response, just do what I do, say what I say, and makesure you don't punch your neighbor, OK? Music!

我们只运动一分钟。它类似「呼喊和回应」,只要做我做的动作,说我说的话,然后小心不要打到旁边的人,好吗?音乐!

 

(Upbeat music)Five, six, seven, eight, it's right, left,right, left. And I say, I am strong now. Let's hear you.

(快乐的音乐)五、六、七、八,右、左、右、左。我说,我现在很强壮。换你们说。

 

Audience: I am strong now.

观众:我现在很强壮。

 

Wendy Suzuki: Ladies, I am WonderWoman-strong. Let's hear you!

温迪铃木:女士们,我是神力女超人──强壮。换你们说!

 

Audience: I am Wonder Woman-strong.

观众:我是神力女超人──强壮。

 

WS: New move -- uppercut, right and left. Iam inspired now. You say it!

温迪:新动作──上勾拳,右、左。我现在受到鼓舞。换你们说!

 

Audience: I am inspired now.

观众:我现在受到鼓舞。

 

WS: Last move -- pull it down, right andleft, right and left. I say, I am on fire now! You say it.

温迪:最后一个动作──拉下来,右、左、右、左。我说,我现在如火燃烧!换你们说。

 

Audience: I am on fire now.

观众:我现在如火燃烧。 

 

WS: And done! OK, good job!

温迪:完成!好,做得好!

 

Thank you. I want to leave you with onelast thought. And that is, bringing exercise in your life will not only giveyou a happier, more protective life today, but it will protect your brain fromincurable diseases. And in this way it will change the trajectory of your lifefor the better.

谢谢。最后我想留给各位一个想法,就是把运动带入你的生活不仅让你今天更快乐、更受保护,还能保护你的大脑,不受无法治愈的疾病所侵害。这么一来就能改变你人生的轨道,朝着更好的方向。

 

Thank you very much.(Applause)

非常谢谢。(掌声)

 


用户评论(73)
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wgvtzbe3d19o7hk929ia

wgvtzbe3d19o7hk929ia

有更新了,好开心!希望今后继续这样给力!!

妮妮_o56

妮妮_o56

有激情有内涵有根据有研究,厉害的科学家!有说服力!

甯_ww

甯_ww

这是我听过的最动感的演讲

Gocy

Gocy

哈哈哈啥 好嗨呀

abbay_50

abbay_50

good article

露小白_va

露小白_va

第一次完整的听完

1777926znyq

1777926znyq

人体是大自然创造的最精密的仪器,对于人体各类机能的探索与研究就像我们对自然与宇宙的探索一样都仅仅处于初始阶段,前方的路任重道远而漫长无边,需要所有的探索研究者持之以恒、不断努力、永续不止。

1365190luks

1365190luks

有字幕就是好

伶子er

伶子er

有激情有动力,听完心情都大好

Lijinhui金辉

Lijinhui金辉

健康就好,运动个毛!

AloneOVO

AloneOVO:回复@Lijinhui金辉

此言差矣

1521726mjij

1521726mjij:回复@Lijinhui金辉

生命在于运动。而对于不想运动的人,那确实不会改变一分一毫。能保持健康当然是好,可怎样的健康呢?你的健康又是什么程度呢?很多人的“健康”程度直到疾病爆发才凸显出。运动才能保持你长久的健康,改变一下想法吧,运动不仅锻炼的是身体,也是锻炼自己的意志,保持身,心都健康。

1592410prid

1592410prid:回复@Lijinhui金辉

粗鄙之语😤

听友113193453

听友113193453

听的很带感

范儿fyf

范儿fyf

不错不错 学英语同时还长知识

物理是我男朋友

物理是我男朋友

太棒了 还有文本呢

黑马妮

黑马妮

怎么看字幕啊

榆宏苑

榆宏苑

非常好!谢谢😊

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